In March and April 2021, Russian President Vladimir Putin ordered the Russian military to begin massing thousands of military personnel and equipment near its border with Ukraine and in Crimea, representing the largest mobilization since the illegal annexation of Crimea in 2014. This precipitated an international crisis and generated concerns over a potential invasion. Satellite imagery showed movements of armour, missiles, and heavy weaponry. The troops were partially removed by June. The crisis was renewed in October and November 2021, when over 100,000 Russian troops were again massed surrounding Ukraine on three sides by December. The ongoing crisis stems from the protracted Russo-Ukrainian War that began in early 2014. In December 2021, Russia advanced two draft treaties that contained requests for what it referred to as "security guarantees", including a legally binding promise that Ukraine would not join the NATO as well as a reduction in NATO troops and military hardware stationed in Eastern Europe, and threatened unspecified military response if those demands were not met in full. NATO has rejected these requests, and the United States warned Russia of "swift and severe" economic sanctions should it further invade Ukraine. Bruno Maçães is a Portuguese politician, consultant and author. He is a nonresident senior fellow at the Hudson Institute. He is a former Secretary of State for European Affairs in Portugal. In this livestream, he will speak on the Russo-Ukraine crisis and more.